Can Anything Sweet (like gum) Affect Fasting or Keto



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Can Anything Sweet (like gum) Affect Fasting or Keto – Thomas DeLauer

CPIR Theory

Some sweeteners do elicit an insulin response, and this phenomenon is known as the cephalic phase insulin response (CPIR) – believed that it helps prepare the body for the inevitable carb load that comes with it

In nature, anything sweet would be a carb – so the CPIR is simply the body’s way of “priming the pump” by releasing a little insulin in anticipation of a carb load, which will cause a subsequent greater insulin release

CPIR – 2 Studies

The journal Physiology & Behavior

Normal weight men sipped and spit four different solutions: water, aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose

A fifth condition involved a modified sham-feed with apple pie – the five stimuli were administered in counterbalanced order, each on a separate day

In study 1, subjects tasted the stimuli for 1 min (n = 15) and in study 2 (n = 16), they tasted the stimuli for 3 min

In both study 1 and study 2, no significant increases in plasma insulin were observed after subjects tasted the sweetened solutions

In contrast, significant increases in plasma insulin occurred after the modified sham-feed with both the 1 min and 3 min exposure

These results suggest that nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners in solution are not adequate stimuli for the elicitation of CPIR

The journal Appetite

In humans little is known as to whether taste solutions applied to the tongue elicit cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR)

The aim of the study was to re-examine if any effect of different taste solutions on CPIR occurs

The taste stimuli were not swallowed; they were applied in a randomized order, each on a separate day

Blood collection for determination of plasma glucose and plasma insulin concentrations was performed 3 min before and 3, 5, 7 and 10 min after taste stimulation

A significant increase of plasma insulin concentration was apparent after stimulation with sucrose and saccharin

In conclusion, the current data suggest that the sweeteners sucrose and saccharin activate a CPIR even when applied to the oral cavity only

Study – Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism

Each group received a different solution:

Group 1 received 9 g of Canderel®, group 2 received 9 g of Nevella®, group 3 received 9 g of Canderel Green Stevia®, group 4 received 75 g of glucose and group 5 received only water.

Serum glucose and insulin levels were performed fasting and one hour after ingestion of each solution

No differences were observed between the genders and the pre and post prandial blood glucose did not differ significantly between the 3 NNS groups and water

Insulin levels increased postprandially in the Canderel and glucose groups but not in the Nevella, water or Canderel Green Stevia groups

References

1) 3 Not-So-Sweet Insulin Effects of Artificial Sweeteners. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.insuliniq.com/3-not-so-sweet-insulin-effects-of-artificial-sweeteners/
2) https://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/a-comparative-study-of-three-nonnutritive-sweeteners-effects-on-insulin-andglucose-in-healthy-nondiabetic-adults.pdf
3) Tonosaki K , et al. (n.d.). Relationships between insulin release and taste. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17510492
4) Just T , et al. (n.d.). Cephalic phase insulin release in healthy humans after taste stimulation? – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556090
5) A comparative study of three non-nutritive sweeteners effects on insulin andglucose in healthy, non-diabetic adults. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/a-comparative-study-of-three-nonnutritive-sweeteners-effects-on-insulin-andglucose-in-healthy-nondiabetic-adults-9028.html
6) Sweet-taste receptors, low-energy sweeteners, glucose absorption and insulin release | British Journal of Nutrition | Cambridge Core. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/sweettaste-receptors-lowenergy-sweeteners-glucose-absorption-and-insulin-release/FD76542E4E27715F92DD2B0BCF31483E
7) Do Artificial Sweeteners Cause an Insulin Spike? (2013, November 14). Retrieved from https://www.marksdailyapple.com/artificial-sweeteners-insulin/
8) Nakagawa Y , et al. (n.d.). Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic beta-cells activates the calcium and cyclic AMP signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19352508
9) Do Artificial Sweeteners Cause Insulin Release? (2014, November 20). Retrieved from https://myheart.net/articles/do-artificial-sweeteners-cause-insulin-releas/

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